School of Politics and International Relations
   
   
  

Publications

Staff in the school have an outstanding record of publication in books and journals. In the latest Research Excellence Framework (REF), 96% of the school's research output was deemed as internationally recognised.

We also host a number of key journals in the field, and staff have editorial involvement in several other leading journals.

Below you will find details of recent books published by members of academic staff. For a full list of publications by individual members of staff, please see the people pages.

2015

Debates of Corruption and Integrity

Debates of Corruption and Integrity

Peter Hardi, Paul M. Heywood, Davide Torsello (eds.)

May 2015

Two aspects link together the notions of corruption and integrity from an epistemological perspective: the complexity of defining the two notions, and their richness in forms. This volume brings together the perspectives of six disciplines - business, political science, law, philosophy, anthropology and behavioural science - to the debate on integrity and corruption. The main goal is to promote a fruitful interdisciplinary dialogue on complex themes such as integrity and corruption in business and politics. The book investigates possible ways in which corruption and integrity apply to everyday practices, ideas and ideologies, and avoids the stigmatizations and oversimplifications that often plague these fields of research.

 
The Devil’s Long Tail: Religious and Other Radicals in the Internet Marketplace

The Devil's Long Tail: Religious and Other Radicals in the Internet Marketplace

David Stevens and Kieron O'Hara

February 2015

The internet may be a utopia for free expression, but it also harbours nihilistic groups and individuals spreading bizarre creeds, unhindered by the risk-averse gatekeepers of the mass media - and not all are as harmless as the Virtual Church of the Blind Chihuahua or Sexastrianism.

With few entry barriers, ready anonymity and no centralised control, the internet offers wired extremists unprecedented access to a potential global audience of billions. Technology allows us to select the information we wish to receive - so those of a fanatical bent can filter out moderating voices and ignore countervailing arguments, retreating into a virtual world of their own design that reaffirms their views.

In The Devil's Long Tail, Stevens and O'Hara argue that we misunderstand online extremism if we think intervention is the best way to counter it. Policies designed to disrupt radical networks fail because they ignore the factors that push people to the margins. Extremists are driven less by ideas than by the benefits of participating in a tightly-knit, self-defined, group. Rather, extreme ideas should be left to sink or swim in the internet's marketplace of ideas.

The internet and the web are valuable creations of a free society. Censoring them impoverishes us all while leaving the radical impulse intact.

 
The Routledge Handbook of Political Corruption

The Routledge Handbook of Political Corruption

Paul M. Heywood (ed.)
January 2015

Since the early 1990s, a series of major scandals in both the financial and most especially the political world has resulted in close attention being paid to the issue of corruption and its links to political legitimacy and stability. Indeed, in many countries – in both the developed as well as the developing world – corruption seems to have become almost an obsession. Concern about corruption has become a powerful policy narrative: the explanation of last resort for a whole range of failures and disappointments in the fields of politics, economics and culture. In the more established democracies, worries about corruption have become enmeshed in a wider debate about trust in the political class. Corruption remains as widespread today, possibly even more so, as it was when concerted international attention started being devoted to the issue following the end of the Cold War.

This Handbook provides a showcase of the most innovative and exciting research being conducted in Europe and North America in the field of political corruption, as well as providing a new point of reference for all who are interested in the topic. The Handbook is structured around four core themes in the study of corruption in the contemporary world: understanding and defining the nature of corruption; identifying its causes; measuring its extent; and analysing its consequences. Each of these themes is addressed from various perspectives in the first four sections of the Handbook, whilst the fifth section explores new directions that are emerging in corruption research. The contributors are experts in their field, working across a range of different social-science perspectives.

 

2014

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The Iron Cage of Liberalism: International Politics and Unarmed Revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa

The Iron Cage of Liberalism: International Politics and Unarmed Revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa

Daniel Ritter
December 2014

Over the last forty years the world has witnessed the emergence and proliferation of a new political phenomenon - unarmed revolution. On virtually every continent, citizens have ousted their authoritarian leaders by employing nonviolent tactics such as strikes, demonstrations, boycotts, and civil disobedience against them. At the same time however, similar movements elsewhere have been brutally crushed by autocrats determined to cling to power.

In this book, Daniel Ritter seeks to understand unarmed revolutions by posing two interrelated questions: Why do nonviolent revolutionary movements in some countries topples autocratic regimes while similar movements elsewhere falter, and why has the world witnessed the proliferation of unarmed revolutions in the last forty years?

 
Sex, Lies and the Ballot Box

Sex, Lies and the Ballot Box: 50 things you need to know about British elections

Philip Cowley and Robert Ford (eds.)

October 2014

Shortlisted for the Practical Politics Book of the Year at The Paddy Power Political Book Awards 2015

Sex, Lies and the Ballot Box sheds light on some of our more unusual voting trends, ranging from why people lie about voting to how being attractive can get you elected. Each of the fifty accessible and concise chapters, written by leading political experts, seeks to examine the broader issues surrounding voting and elections in Britain. 

It is not just about sexual secrets and skewed surveys: it illustrates the importance of women and ethnic minorities; explains why parties knock on your door (and why they don't); and shows how partisanship colours your views of everything, even pets.

This fascinating volume covers everything you need to know (and the things you never thought you needed to know) about the bedroom habits, political untruths and voting nuances behind the upcoming election.

 
A State of Play: British Politics on Screen, Stage and Page, from Anthony Trollope to The Thick of It

A State of Play: British Politics on Screen, Stage and Page, from Anthony Trollope to The Thick of It

Steven Fielding
April 2014

A State of Play explores how the British have imagined their politics, from the parliament worship of Anthony Trollope to the cynicism of The Thick of It. In an account that mixes historical with political analysis, Steven Fielding argues that fictional depictions of politics have played an important but insidious part in shaping how the British think about their democracy and have helped ventilate their many frustrations with Westminster. He shows that dramas and fictions have also performed a significant role in the battle of ideas, in a way undreamt of by those who draft party manifestos.

The book examines the work of overtly political writers have treated the subject, discussing the novels of H.G. Wells, the comedy series Yes, Minister and the plays of David Hare. However, it also assesses how less obvious sources, such as the films of George Formby, the novels of Agatha Christie, the Just William stories and situation comedies like Steptoe and Son, have reflected on representative democracy.

 
Free Trade and Transnational Labour

Free Trade and Transnational Labour

Andreas Bieler, Bruno Ciccaglione, John Hilary, Ingemar Lindberg
March 2014

'Free trade' strategies have increasingly become a problem for the international labour movement. While trade unions in the North especially in manufacturing have supported free trade agreements to secure export markets for their companies, trade unions in the Global South oppose these agreements, since they often imply deindustrialisation. Especially the expansion of the free trade agenda into services, public procurement, investment, intellectual property rights as well as investor to state dispute settlement provisions are considered to be problematic.

The purpose of this volume is to understand better these dynamics underlying 'free trade' policy-making in order to explore possibilities for transnational labour solidarity. Bringing together labour academics with trade union researchers and social movement activists, this volume moves from conceptual reflections about the impact of 'free trade' via the analysis of struggles around free trade agreements to considerations of concrete alternatives.

 
Britain and the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy, 1964-1970

Britain and the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy, 1964-1970

David James Gill
January 2014

Drawing on primary sources from both sides of the Atlantic, Britain and the Bomb explores how economic, political, and strategic considerations have shaped British nuclear diplomacy.

The book concentrates on Prime Minister Harold Wilson's first two terms of office, 1964-1970, which represent a critical period in international nuclear history. Wilson's commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and his support for continued investment in the British nuclear weapons program, despite serious economic and political challenges, established precedents that still influence policymakers today. The continued independence of Britain's nuclear force, and the enduring absence of a German or European deterrent, certainly owes a debt to Wilson's handling of nuclear diplomacy more than four decades ago.

Beyond highlighting the importance of this period, the book explains how and why British nuclear diplomacy evolved during Wilson's leadership. Cabinet discussions, financial crises, and international tensions encouraged a degree of flexibility in the pursuit of strategic independence and the creation of a non-proliferation treaty. Gill shows us that British nuclear diplomacy was a series of compromises, an intricate blend of political, economic, and strategic considerations.

 
 

2013

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Confronting the Colonies: British Intelligence and Counterinsurgency

Confronting the Colonies: British Intelligence and Counterinsurgency

Rory Cormac
September 2013

Moving the debate beyond the place of tactical intelligence in counterinsurgency warfare, Confronting the Colonies considers the view from Whitehall, where the biggest decisions were made. It reveals the evolving impact of strategic intelligence upon government understandings of, and policy responses to, insurgent threats. Confronting the Colonies demonstrates for the first time how, in the decades after World War Two, the intelligence agenda expanded to include non-state actors, insurgencies, and irregular warfare. It explores the challenges these emerging threats posed to intelligence assessment and how they were met with varying degrees of success.

Such issues remain of vital importance today. By examining the relationship between intelligence and policy, Cormac provides original and revealing insights into government thinking in the era of decolonisation, from the origins of nationalist unrest to the projection of dwindling British power. He demonstrates how intelligence (mis-)understood the complex relationship between the Cold War, nationalism, and decolonisation; how it fuelled fierce Whitehall feuding; and how it shaped policymakers’ attempts to integrate counterinsurgency into broader strategic policy.

 
Global Justice and the Politics of Recognition

Global Justice and the Politics of Recognition

Tony Burns and Simon Thompson (eds.)
September 2013

Two issues have been central within political philosophy in the last decade or so. The first is the debate over 'the politics of distribution versus the politics of recognition,' which is usually associated with the work of Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser. The second is discussion of the phenomenon known as globalization, focusing on the notions of cosmopolitanism and global justice.

This book explores the relationship between these two issues. It considers not only the global dimension of the politics of recognition, but also how recognition theory can provide new insights into our understanding of problems of global justice, especially those of a non-distributive nature. A number of the contributors consider the relevance of Hegel’s theory of recognition for our understanding of these issues.

 
Proxy Warfare

Proxy Warfare

Andrew Mumford
May 2013

Proxy wars represent a perennial strand in the history of conflict. The appeal of 'warfare on the cheap' has proved an irresistible strategic allure for nations through the centuries. However, proxy wars remain a missing link in contemporary war and security studies. In this timely book Andrew Mumford attempts to rectify this situation by assessing the dynamics and lineage of proxy warfare from the Cold War to the War on Terror, and analysing them within a conceptual framework to help explain their appeal.

 
Language Rights: From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance

Language Rights: From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance

Vanessa Pupavac
September 2012

Speech is core to our humanity and fundamental to our capacity to assert political rights, and determine what is just and unjust. Rights therefore mean little if they do not relate to speech. But what are language rights? What language or speech is defended? How do language rights relate to each other?

This book explores these questions and examines language rights politics in theoretical, historical and international context, bringing together debates from law, sociolinguistics, international politics, and the history of ideas. It includes a critical exploration of the following issues:

  • Language rights as linguistic identity rights 
  • International linguistic human rights in theory and practice 
  • Language rights advocacy and global governance 
  • Linguistic imperialism and global English debates 
  • National language politics and global governance in Bosnia 
  • The emerging field of ecolinguistics 
  • Hate speech and counter-terrorism legislation

The author looks at how, why and where freedom of speech is endangered, and argues that international language rights advocacy supports the global governance of language and questions freedoms of speech and expression.

 
China’s Evolving Approach to Peacekeeping

China's Evolving Approach to Peacekeeping

Marc Lanteigne and Miwa Hirono (eds.)
May 2012

China has become an enthusiastic supporter of and contributor to UN peacekeeping. Is China's participation in peacekeeping likely to strengthen the current international peacekeeping regime by China's adopting of the international norms of peacekeeping? Or, on the contrary, is it likely to alter the peacekeeping norms in a way that aligns with its own worldview? And, as China's international confidence grows, will it begin to consider peacekeeping a smaller and lesser part of its international security activity, and thus not care so much about it?

This book aims to address these questions by examining how the PRC has developed its peacekeeping policy and practices in relation to its international status. It does so by bringing in both historical and conceptual analyses and specific case-oriented discussions of China's peacekeeping over the past twenty years. The book identifies the various challenges that China has faced at political, conceptual and operational levels and the ways in which the country has dealt with those challenges, and considers the implication of such challenges with regards to the future of international peacekeeping.

 
Fool's Gold?: Utopianism in the Twenty-First Century

Fool's Gold?: Utopianism in the Twenty-First Century

Lucy Sargisson
April 2012

What's wrong with the world today and how might it become better (or worse)? These are the questions pursued in this book, which explores the hopes and fears, dreams and nightmares of the 21st century. Drawing on examples from architecture, fiction, theory, film and experiments with everyday life, Sargisson explores contemporary hopes and fears about religion, gender, sex, the environment and new technologies. The book asks, is the search for utopia a quest for Fools' Gold?

Its answer is 'yes' and 'no' and Sargisson identifies a number of different kinds of utopian impulse. Some utopias offer blueprints for the perfect world. Others are experiments in process. Some utopianism is dangerous, even toxic. Some utopianism is playful and fun. Some utopianism seeks actively to change the world. This book teases out examples of these and other types of utopianism which both shape and reflect our world today.

 
The EU Timescape

The EU Timescape

Klaus Goetz, Jan-Hinrik Meyer-Sahling (eds.)
February 2012

The manner in which time is institutionalized is critical to how a political system works. Terms, time budgets and time horizons of collective and individual political actors; rights over timing, sequencing and speed in decision-making; and the temporal properties of policy matter to the distribution of power; efficiency and effectiveness of policy-making; and democratic legitimacy.

This book makes a case for the systematic study of political time in the European Union (EU) - both as an independent and a dependent variable - and highlights the analytical value-added of a time-centred analysis. The book discusses previous scholarship on the institutionalization of political time and its consequences along the dimensions of polity, politics and policy; reviews dominant perspectives on political time, which centre on power, system performance and legitimacy; and presents case studies that illustrate the importance of time in the governance of the EU.

 

 

 

2012

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The European Union in the Security of Europe

The European Union in the Security of Europe

Steve Marsh and Wyn Rees
October 2011

This book examines the European Union's contribution to providing security in Europe amidst an increasingly complex and challenging environment. In this new and comprehensive guide to the EU's role in security since the end of the Cold War, the authors offer an explanation of EU internal and external security regimes, and argue that the Union has become an important exporter of security within its region. However, the Union's rhetorical ambitions and commitments continue to outstrip its capabilities and it lacks both a common conceptualisation of security and a meaningful, shared strategic culture. 

Drawing extensively on primary sources the book examines the Union's relations with the US and Russia in a time of shifting geostrategic calculations and priorities. With the EU capacity for enlargement slowing, this text presents a detailed assessment of EU security policies towards Central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Western Balkans, Eastern Europe and South Caucasus. European Union Security will be of interest to students and scholars of the EU, security studies, and international relations.

 
Aristotle and Natural Law

Aristotle and Natural Law

Tony Burns
October 2011

Aristotle and Natural Law lays out a new theoretical approach which distinguishes between the notions of 'interpretation,' 'appropriation,' 'negotiation' and 'reconstruction' of the meaning of texts and their component concepts. These categories are then deployed in an examination of the role which the concept of natural law is used by Aristotle in a number of key texts. The book argues that Aristotle appropriated the concept of natural law, first formulated by the defenders of naturalism in the 'nature versus convention debate' in classical Athens. Thereby he contributed to the emergence and historical evolution of the meaning of one of the most important concept in the lexicon of Western political thought.

Aristotle and Natural Law argues that Aristotle's ethics is best seen as a certain type of natural law theory which does not allow for the possibility that individuals might appeal to natural law in order to criticize existing laws and institutions. Rather its function is to provide them with a philosophical justification from the standpoint of Aristotle's metaphysics.

 
The Modern State

The Modern State

Chris Pierson
July 2011

The new edition of this well-established and highly regarded textbook continues to provide the clearest and most comprehensive introduction to the modern state. It examines the state from its historical origins at the birth of modernity to its current jeopardized position in the globalized politics of the 21st Century. The book has been entirely revised and updated throughout, including substantial new material on the financial crisis and the environment. This book is essential reading for all those studying the state, international relations and comparative politics.

 
The Counter-Insurgency Myth: The British Experience of Irregular Warfare

The Counter-Insurgency Myth: The British Experience of Irregular Warfare

Andrew Mumford
July 2011

This book examines the complex practice of counter-insurgency warfare through the prism of British military experiences in the post-war era and endeavours to unpack their performance.

During the twentieth century counter-insurgency assumed the status of one of the British military's fortes. A wealth of asymmetric warfare experience was accumulated after the Second World War as the small wars of decolonisation offered the army of a fading imperial power many opportunities to deploy against an irregular enemy. However, this quantity of experience does not translate into quality. This book argues that the British, far from being exemplars of counter-insurgency, have in fact consistently proved to be slow learners in counter-insurgency warfare.

This book presents an analysis of the most significant British counter-insurgency campaigns of the past 60 years: Malaya (1948-60), Kenya (1952-60), South Arabia (1962-67), the first decade of the Northern Irish 'Troubles' (1969-79), and the recent British counter-insurgency campaign in southern Iraq (2003-09). Colonial history is used to contextualise the contemporary performance in Iraq and undermine the commonly held confidence in British counter-insurgency.

Blending historical research with critical analysis, this book seeks to establish a new paradigm through which to interpret and analyse the British approach to counter-insurgency, as well as considering the mythology of inherent British competence in the realm of irregular warfare. It will be of interest to students of counter-insurgency, military history, strategic studies, security studies, and IR in general.

 
From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party 1997-2010

From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party 1997-2010

Peter Dorey, Mark Garnett and Andrew Denham
May 2011

Why did the Conservative Party take so long to recover from its landslide defeat in the 1997 General Election? Why, despite the best efforts of its charismatic leader David Cameron, did the party still fail to win an overall parliamentary majority in the 2010 General Election? Why did it form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats, and what are the prospects for both parties?

This book is the first full-length attempt to answer these questions. Written by three leading specialists on the Conservative Party, From Crisis to Coalition provides detailed analysis of key developments within the party since 1997. It is essential reading for all students of British Politics, and for anyone with an interest in contemporary British political history.

 
Fixing Drugs: The Politics of Drug Prohibition

Fixing Drugs: The Politics of Drug Prohibition

Sue Pryce
2011

Drug use is an inherent part of our culture. Since the Sumerians wrote of the 'joy of the poppy plant' in 3000BC to the crack dens of today, people in every society have wanted to use drugs. Drug policy cannot be effective until this basic fact is acknowledged and incorporated into policy-thinking. Until we recognize that drug use is an integral feature of society, it cannot be eliminated.

In this unique and engaging new book, the former chair of DrugScope Sue Pryce tackles the major issues surrounding drug policy. Why do governments persist with prohibition policies, despite their proven inefficacy? Why are some drugs criminalized, and some not? And why does society care about drug use at all? In a highly polarized debate, in which emotions run high, Pryce illuminates these questions and guides us through the problems, possibilities and realities of drug policy around the world.

 
The US-EU Security Relationship: The Tensions between a European and a Global Agenda

The US-EU Security Relationship: The Tensions between a European and a Global Agenda

Wyn Rees

2011

A wide-ranging assessment by a leading authority on contemporary US-EU security relations. This book systematically examines the development of the relationship since the Cold War and considers how global and European issues such as EU enlargement, international terrorism and the war on terror have affected security relations.

 

 

 

2010

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Contemporary India

Contemporary India

Katharine Adeney and Andrew Wyatt
November 2010

A broad-ranging introduction to politics and society in India, set in a historical and cultural context. Written by two expert authors it assumes no prior knowledge but aims to provide a balanced and nuanced understanding of the key issues that have faced India since independence and the challenges it confronts in the 21st century.

 
Global Restructuring, Labour and the Challenges for Transnational Solidarity

Global Restructuring, Labour and the Challenges for Transnational Solidarity

Andreas Bieler and Ingemar Lindberg (eds.)
2010

Globalisation has put national labour movements under severe pressure, due to the increasing transnationalisation of production, with the production of many goods being organised across borders, and the informalisation of the economy.

Through a range of case studies, this volume examines the possibilities and obstacles to transnational solidarity of labour in a period of global restructuring and changing global political economy. It brings together a range of international and transnational case studies, examining successful and failed transnational solidarity covering inter-trade union co-operation as well as co-operation between trade unions and social movements within the formal and informal economy, and the public and private sector. It is structured in six parts and examines:

  • Globalisation and the new challenges for transnational solidarity 
  • Inter-trade union co-operation across borders
  • The dynamics of co-operation between trade unions and social movements across borders, looking at developing and developed countries
  • The struggles to defend the public sector against private service providers
  • The possible ways forward towards transnational solidarity of formal and informal labour in the global economy
 
The Legacy of Leo Strauss

The Legacy of Leo Strauss

Tony Burns (Author, Editor) and James Connelly (Editor)
2010

Leo Strauss was a political philosopher, who died in 1973. He came to prominence in the United States in the United States and in Britain in the 1990s, at the time of the First Iraq War, especially because of his associations with American Neoconservatism and the foreign policy of the administration of former US President George W. Bush. At that time there was a widespread belief that the architects of the War, figures such as Paul Wolfowitz, and others who held staff positions in the US State and Defence Departments, as well as the National Security Agency (NSA), had studied under, or been influenced by the academic work of Strauss and his followers. It began to be reported in the popular press in the United States, as well as in intellectual and academic journals, that a group known as the Straussians had been instrumental in determining the long-range strategic planning of US foreign policy, both to advance American interests and to encourage the exportation of Western 'democracy' to other, non-Western societies.

This volume of essays opens up the topic of Leo Strauss and the Straussians to those outside the relatively narrow circles which have been concerned with him and his followers up to now.

Tony Burns is an Associate Professor in the School of Politics and International Relations, University of Nottingham, and Co-Director of the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice (CSSGJ) there. James Connelly is Professor of Political Thought at the University of Hull.

 
The British General Election of 2010

The British General Election of 2010

Philip Cowley and Dennis Kavanagh
2010

Described by politicalbetting.com as 'the political book of the year', this is the eighteenth in the prestigious series of books dating back to 1945. It draws on hundreds of confidential interviews with all the key players, as well as considerable empirical analysis, and offers a compelling insider's guide to the election's background, campaign and results, including a detailed account of what happened in the formation of the UK's first coalition government since the second world war.

The Guardian described it as 'popular academic writing at its best', the Telegraph called it 'indispensable', and the Observer described it as a 'political thriller', noting that the book 'is distinguished by the quality of its sources: the ministers, aides and strategists who open up to these academics in a way they might not to journalists'.

 
European Foreign and Security Policy

European Foreign and Security Policy

Catherine Gegout

2010

This is the first book to offer a theory to explain European Union decision-making in foreign and security policies. It also provides a detailed and practical analysis on how the Common Foreign and Security Policy really works, before and since the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty.

 
Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State

Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State

Chris Pierson
2010

The newly-published Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State, co-edited by Chris Pierson of the School of Politics and International Relations and Professor Frank Castles of the Australian National University, is the authoritative and definitive guide to the contemporary welfare state. The book is divided into eight sections. It opens with three chapters that evaluate the philosophical case for (and against) the welfare state. Surveys of the welfare state's history and of the approaches taken to its study are followed by four extended sections, which offer a comprehensive and in-depth survey of our current state of knowledge across the whole range of issues that the welfare state embraces.

The first of these sections looks at inputs and actors (including the roles of parties, unions, and employers), the impact of gender and religion, patterns of migration and a changing public opinion, the role of international organisations and the impact of globalisation. The next two sections cover policy inputs (in areas such as pensions, health care, disability, care of the elderly, unemployment, and labour market activation) and their outcomes (in terms of inequality and poverty, macroeconomic performance, and retrenchment). The seventh section consists of seven chapters which survey welfare state experience around the globe (and not just within the OECD). Two final chapters consider questions about the global future of the welfare state.

The individual chapters of the Handbook are written in an informed but accessible way by leading researchers in their respective fields giving the reader an excellent and truly up-to-date knowledge of the area under discussion. Taken together, they constitute a comprehensive compendium of all that is best in contemporary welfare state research and a unique guide to what is happening now in this most crucial and contested area of social and political development.

 

 

 

2009

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Elections and Voters

Elections and Voters

Cees van der Eijk and Mark Franklin

2009

Each of the authors has been active in the field of electoral studies for some thirty years, and they have been involved in a variety of large scale comparative studies and a great number of publications.

The book argues that voters and politicians are more or less the same, wherever they are, but that apparent differences in their behaviours and preferences can be understood in terms of the institutional and cultural environments in which they live. The authors challenge a variety of 'common wisdoms', provide comparative perspectives across countries, across periods, and within countries, and conclude with a broad-ranging and empirically informed assessment of the performance of electoral democracy in different political systems.

 

 

 

 

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